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不锈钢管件的工程应用不锈钢管件运用标准

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不锈钢管件的工程应用不锈钢管件运用标准

发布日期:2022-03-27 作者: 点击:

不锈钢管(guan)件的工(gong)程应用 不锈钢管(guan)件运用标准(zhun)

一、管(guan)件实(shi)选用和使用的(de)相应法(fa)规(gui)及各项规(gui)定

管(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)在实(shi)际选用(yong)或(huo)使用(yong)时,首(shou)先必须遵循(xun)相应法(fa)规(gui)及规(gui)范内的(de)(de)各(ge)项规(gui)定(ding),特(te)别是输送极度或(huo)高(gao)度危害(hai)流(liu)体介(jie)质、易(yi)燃介(jie)质以及高(gao)压气体等管(guan)(guan)道的(de)(de)场(chang)合(he)。在这前提(ti)下,主要(yao)依据(ju)用(yong)途和使用(yong)条件(jian)(jian)(压力、温度、流(liu)体介(jie)质)来确定(ding)管(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)种类(lei)。下面主要(yao)列出(chu)了相关的(de)(de)法(fa)规(gui)/规(gui)范,仅(jin)供参(can)考(kao)。

1、特(te)种设备安(an)全监(jian)察法(fa);

2、特种设(she)备安全(quan)检查(cha)条例列;

3、压力管(guan)道(dao)安(an)全管(guan)理与监察(cha)规定;

4、特种设备质(zhi)量(liang)监(jian)督与安全(quan)监(jian)察规定;

5、特种(zhong)设(she)备设(she)计/制造/安(an)装(zhuang)监督管(guan)理规(gui)定(拟订);

6、压(ya)力管道安全技术监察规程(拟订);

7、工(gong)业金(jin)属(shu)管(guan)道安全技术(shu)规范(拟订);

不锈钢弯头


二、管(guan)件强度等级(ji)的确定

1、以公称压(ya)力(li)(li)表示其(qi)等级或规定压(ya)力(li)(li)一(yi)温度(du)额定值(zhi)的管件,应按(an)标准(zhun)规定的压(ya)力(li)(li)一(yi)温度(du)额定值(zhi)作(zuo)为其(qi)使用(yong)基准(zhun),如GB/T 17185;

2、标准中仅规定(ding)了(le)与其相连直(zhi)管的公称厚度的管件,按标准规定(ding)的基准管子(zi)等(deng)级(ji)确定(ding)其适用压(ya)力一温(wen)度额定(ding)值,如GB14383~GB14626。

3、标准中仅规定外形(xing)尺(chi)寸的(de)管件,如GB12459、GB 13401,应通过验证(zheng)性试验来确定其承压(ya)强度。

4、其他(ta),应按(an)有关规(gui)定(ding)进行压力设计或解(jie)析分析等方法来确定(ding)其使用(yong)基准。此(ci)外,管件强度等级的确定(ding),还应不低于整个管道(dao)系统在操作中可能(neng)遇到的最严酷工况下的压力。

三、安全性与经济(ji)性

实际配管(guan)(guan)工(gong)程(cheng)中使用的管(guan)(guan)件(jian)的结构(gou)型式,除了上述(shu)介绍(shao)的以(yi)外,还有其他(ta)多种结构(gou)形式的管(guan)(guan)件(jian),用以(yi)满足各种不(bu)同(tong)工(gong)况条件(jian)、特别是特殊工(gong)况的要(yao)求。在工(gong)程(cheng)设计或选用时,管(guan)(guan)件(jian)的强(qiang)度(du)等级(ji)越(yue)高(gao),安全性越(yue)高(gao),但(dan)工(gong)程(cheng)的费(fei)用成(cheng)本也越(yue)大,会造成(cheng)不(bu)必要(yao)的浪费(fei)。

从经(jing)济效益上考(kao)虑(lv),在满足工(gong)程设(she)计(ji)要(yao)求的(de)同时,尽可能(neng)降低成本,却往往容(rong)易形(xing)成选(xuan)用的(de)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)总体上出现(xian)少(shao)量多品种的(de)结果,从而(er)不利于现(xian)场(chang)施工(gong)材料(liao)(liao)的(de)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理、调控以及设(she)计(ji)变更需要(yao)的(de)材料(liao)(liao)代用等(deng)(deng)。 因(yin)此,管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)的(de)选(xuan)用,应综合安全性和经(jing)济性,尽可能(neng)减少(shao)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)的(de)品种为(wei)宜。此外,现(xian)场(chang)施工(gong)的(de)条件(jian)、施工(gong)的(de)水(shui)平(ping),管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)的(de)采(cai)购周期等(deng)(deng)因(yin)素(su),也应在管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)选(xuan)用中(zhong)引起必要(yao)的(de)重视(shi)。具体情(qing)况下(xia),也应考(kao)虑(lv)采(cai)用加(jia)强管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)接(jie)头、斜接(jie)弯(wan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)以及小口径管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子的(de)现(xian)场(chang)弯(wan)曲加(jia)工(gong)等(deng)(deng)的(de)可能(neng)性。

同(tong)时,对于管件生(sheng)产厂(chang)的生(sheng)产能力和(he)产品,市场供应情(qing)况的了(le)解也(ye)很有必要。

四、管件选用标准(zhun)中(zhong)存在的(de)问题(ti)

1、国(guo)内管(guan)件(jian)(jian)标(biao)准不(bu)(bu)健全(quan)、不(bu)(bu)配(pei)套(tao)(tao)管(guan)件(jian)(jian)标(biao)准应包括管(guan)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)型(xing)式参数标(biao)准与管(guan)件(jian)(jian)材(cai)料标(biao)准。但材(cai)料标(biao)准中或是规定不(bu)(bu)全(quan),或是缺乏(fa)诸如汀货(huo)要求、检(jian)验及组批(pi)规则、质量证明等(deng)方(fang)面的(de)(de)质量技术要求。管(guan)件(jian)(jian)材(cai)料标(biao)准配(pei)套(tao)(tao)性差,往往从(cong)各自的(de)(de)立场、角度,而不(bu)(bu)是从(cong)压力(li)管(guan)道整个(ge)标(biao)准体系出(chu)发来(lai)制(zhi)订。工(gong)程中的(de)(de)选用(yong),管(guan)材(cai)标(biao)准有,但无相应的(de)(de)锻件(jian)(jian)或铸件(jian)(jian)标(biao)准。现实(shi)是管(guan)件(jian)(jian)锻件(jian)(jian)标(biao)准借用(yong)压力(li)容器的(de)(de)锻件(jian)(jian)标(biao)准,没(mei)有考虑两者的(de)(de)差异,如焊(han)接(jie)、拍(pai)片(pian)检(jian)验等(deng)规定。

2、管件标(biao)准水平千差万别,内容缺乏一(yi)致(zhi)与(yu)系统性,以至(zhi)衔接出(chu)现矛盾,造(zao)成使用上的(de)不便。

3、无(wu)管件的型(xing)式(shi)(shi)试(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)标(biao)准(zhun),仅GB12459、GB13401标(biao)准(zhun)中规定了(le)钢制(zhi)对(dui)焊无(wu)缝管件和钢板制(zhi)对(dui)焊管件的爆(bao)破试(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)的压(ya)力(li)计算(suan),其他保(bao)证管件制(zhi)造(zao)质量的型(xing)式(shi)(shi)试(shi)(shi)验(yan)(yan)标(biao)准(zhun)或执行标(biao)准(zhun)没有。

钢(gang)制金属管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)(jian)为了(le)满足不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)用(yong)(yong)途、条(tiao)件(jian)(jian)(jian),结构形式多(duo)(duo)种多(duo)(duo)样.其(qi)中使用(yong)(yong)得(de)最多(duo)(duo)的(de)(de)(de)是弯头、三通(tong)及(ji)异径(jing)(jing)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)。管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)连(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)接(jie)(jie)方式常用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)有对焊连(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)接(jie)(jie)、承插焊连(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)接(jie)(jie)以(yi)及(ji)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)螺(luo)纹(wen)连(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)接(jie)(jie)。通(tong)常,DN50以(yi)及(ji)以(yi)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)道采用(yong)(yong)对焊连(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)接(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)(jian),DN50以(yi)下的(de)(de)(de)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)道采用(yong)(yong)承插焊管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)(jian)或(huo)螺(luo)纹(wen)连(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)接(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)(jian)加(jia)密封焊管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)(jian)种类的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)用(yong)(yong),首先应(ying)根(gen)据管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)道系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)设(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)压(ya)力、设(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)温(wen)(wen)度及(ji)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)内介质(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)性(xing)质(zhi),其(qi)次是考虑经济性(xing)、寿(shou)命(ming)等综合因素,并按其(qi)所在管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系的(de)(de)(de)设(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)压(ya)力、设(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)温(wen)(wen)度确定管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)使用(yong)(yong)压(ya)力一温(wen)(wen)度等级。选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)支(zhi)(zhi)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)连(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)接(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)(jian)从(cong)主(zhu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)上(shang)引出支(zhi)(zhi)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)时,若管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)径(jing)(jing)相同(tong),应(ying)尽量采用(yong)(yong)三通(tong)连(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)接(jie)(jie);当支(zhi)(zhi)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)直径(jing)(jing)小于或(huo)等于DN50、在三通(tong)的(de)(de)(de)变径(jing)(jing)范围或(huo)适用(yong)(yong)范围以(yi)外时,叮选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)支(zhi)(zhi)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)台(tai)、半管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)接(jie)(jie)头或(huo)加(jia)强管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)接(jie)(jie)头等支(zhi)(zhi)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)连(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)接(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)件(jian)(jian)(jian);此外,根(gen)据工程(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)具体情况也可以(yi)采用(yong)(yong)主(zhu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)上(shang)直接(jie)(jie)焊接(jie)(jie)支(zhi)(zhi)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)结构,但必(bi)须校核支(zhi)(zhi)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)连(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)接(jie)(jie)处是否(fou)需要补(bu)强。


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